Tuesday, January 14, 2014

Lit Terms 2

Second lit terms list! Tadaaa!

All definitions are from the lit terms pdf (which I actually still have on my computer from the summer before English 3).

01) circumlocution def: a roundabout or evasive speech or writing, in which many words are used but a few would have served
ex: saying "due to the fact that" instead of "because"
02) classicism def: art, literature, and music reflecting the principles of ancient Greece and Rome tradition, reason, clarity, order, and balance
ex: Allegory of the Cave
03) cliché def: a phrase or situation overused within society
ex: lol
04) climax def: the decisive point in a narrative or drama; the point of greatest intensity or interest at which plot question is answered or resolved
ex: when Beowulf fights the dragon
05) colloquialism def: folksy speech, slang words or phrases usually used in informal conversation
ex: This vocab is like, totes cray cray
06) comedy def: originally a nondramatic literary piece of work that was marked by a happy ending; now a term to describe a ludicrous, farcical, or amusing event designed provide enjoyment or produce smiles and laughter
ex: Aristophanes was a Greek comedy writer whose plays include The Acharnians (425 BC), The Knights (424 BC), The Clouds (423 BC), The Wasps (422 BC), Peace (421 BC), The Birds (414 BC) , Lysistrata (411 BC) , Thesmophoriazusae (c. 411 BC), The Frogs (405 BC), Ecclesiazusae (c. 392 BC), and Plutus (388 BC) [from my report on comedy in 6th grade]
07) conflict def: struggle or problem in a story causing tension
ex: Charles Darnay is a good guy who cares about helping others, but is unable to and gets in trouble with the overzealous revolutionaries just because he's an aristocrat (main conflict: Darnay vs. French citizens)
08) connotation def: implicit meaning, going beyond dictionary definition (opposite of denotation)
ex: "fragrance" has a positive connotation, but "stench" has a negative connotation
09) contrast def: a rhetorical device by which one element (idea or object) is thrown into opposition to another for the sake of emphasis or clarity
ex: infomercials use black-and-white clips of unhappy people struggling with some HORRIBLE PROBLEM, like "omg look how crappy my pancakes are in this stupid pan," as a contrast so the product looks better
10) denotation def: plain dictionary definition (opposite of connotation)
ex: "fragrance" and "stench" have the same denotation ("smell")
11) denouement def: loose ends tied up in a story after the climax, closure, conclusion
ex: Beowulf's funeral is the denoument
12) dialect def: the language of a particular district, class or group of persons; the sounds, grammar, and diction employed by people distinguished from others.
ex: in Huck Finn, Mark Twain made sure that his characters' dialogue would be in authentic American dialects
13) dialectics def: formal debates usually over the nature of truth
ex: Allegory of the Cave
14) dichotomy def: split or break between two opposing things
ex: Hamlet's monologues reveal a dichotomy between the person Hamlet really is and how Hamlet presents himself to others
15) diction def: the style of speaking or writing as reflected in the choice and use of words
ex: the diction we use in conversation with friends is very informal, while the diction we use when writing an essay is much more formal
16) didactic def: having to do with the transmission of information; education
ex: Aesop's fables were didactic because they all taught morals; Romeo and Juliet is also somewhat didactic because it was written to show that feuds are pointless
17) dogmatic def: rigid in beliefs and principles
ex: the Reverend in The Poisonwood Bible is reeeeeally dogmatic
18) elegy def: a mournful, melancholy poem, especially a funeral song or lament for the dead, sometimes contains general reflections on death, often with a rural or pastoral setting
ex: "Dirge Without Music"
19) epic def: a long narrative poem unified by a hero who reflects the customs, morals, and aspirations of his nation or race as he makes his way through legendary and historic exploits, usually over a long period of time
ex: The Odyssey, Beowulf
20) epigram def: witty aphorism
ex: "It has been said that democracy is the worst form of government except all the others that have been tried." –Sir Winston Churchill
21) epitaph def: any brief inscription in prose or verse on a tombstone; a short formal poem of commemoration often a credo written by the person who wishes it to be on his tombstone
ex: "R.I.P.
Here lie the souls of those who swore fealty to the Royal Family of Hyrule
The Sheikah, guardians of the Royal Family and founders of Kakariko, watch over these spirits in their eternal slumber." (first thing I thought of — yeah, I'm that otaku)
22) epithet def: a short, descriptive name or phrase that has entered common usage so it can be used in place of a name
ex: Dwayne "The Rock" Johnson, "Alexander the Great"; in Beowulf, "giver of rings" = "lord", etc.
23) euphemism def: the use of an indirect, mild or vague word or expression for one thought to be coarse, offensive, or blunt
ex: I'm not short, I'm vertically challenged
24) evocative def: a calling forth of memories and sensations; the suggestion or production through artistry and imagination of a sense of reality
ex: The Varsouviana in A Streetcar Named Desire is evocative of madness.

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